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Computer Basics for IBPS Exams

A Computer is an electronic device that manipulates input data and produces the output as result. Computer also has the ability of storing, retrieving and processing the data. A computer is composed of hardware and software in it.

Input Devices - Keyboard, Scanner, mouse, joystick, microphone, and barcode reader are the input devices. Input devices access the data.

Output Devices- Monitor, Printer are the output devices of a computer, these devices produce the result as output to the user.

Central Processing Unit (CPU) - Process the data.

Storage Devices (RAM) - RAM stands for Random Access Memory, which stores the data and program result. Once we turn off the computer the data in this RAM will be erased.

Computer Basics

Basic Functionalities of a computer:

It accepts and stores data.
Process the input data according to user requirement.
Returns back the result.

Hardware: Hardware in computer terminology refers to the physical components that which we can touch and feel like Keyboard, mouse, printer, scanner, hard disk, Ram, etc.

Software: Software in computer terminology referred as a set of programs that are designed to control and operate the hardware devices.

Central Processing Unit (CPU):

Central Processing Unit is considered as the brain of a computer. It is the main part of computer. It performs all data processing operations. It has following major components:

i) Memory Unit
ii) Control Unit
iii) Arithmetic Logic Unit

i) Memory Unit:

  • It stores all the data and the instructions required for processing.
  • It stores intermediate results of processing.
  • It stores final results of processing before these results are released to an output device.
  • All inputs and outputs are transmitted through main memory.
ii) Control Unit:
  • It is responsible for controlling the transfer of data and instructions among other units of a computer.
  • It manages and coordinates all the units of the computer.
  • It obtains the instructions from the memory, interprets them, and directs the operation of the computer.
  • It communicates with Input/output devices for transfer of data or results from storage.

iii) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU):

This section performs arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and logical operations like comparing and matching data.

Operating System (OS):

An operating system acts as an interface between software and hardware. It provides user a convenient way to use computer. Totally it is used to manage the resources of a computer efficiently.

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