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Basics of Internet

Internet basics, here we guide you through the most important concepts that are useful for all IBPS (banking) exams.

What is Internet?
Internet is a collection of computer networks globally which are linked together and use common protocols called TCP/IP (transmission control protocol / Internet protocol) for data transmission. TCP converts messages into streams of packets at the source, and they are reassembled back into messages at the destination. The main purpose of Internet is to share information. We use FTP, TELNET, email and World Wide Web (WWW) to achieve this. Among all these tools World Wide Web (WWW) is most popular one.

History of Internet:
The US defense department funded to develop a secure network in the year 1969, which should work even after a nuclear attack. This project was known as ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network).

e-mail (Electronic Mail)

e-mail or Electronic mail is a paperless method of sending messages, notes or letters from one person to another or even many people at the same time via Internet. Email is very fast compared to the normal post. e-mail messages usually take only few seconds to arrive at their destination. You need not wait for the post office to open and you don’t have to get worried about holidays. It works 24 hours a day and seven days a week.

The biggest advantage of using e-mail is that it is cheap, especially when sending messages to other states or countries and at the same time it can be delivered to a number of people around the world. Although e-mail is faster and cheaper, it allows you to compose note, get the address of the recipient and send it. Once the mail is received and read, it can be forwarded replied. One can even store it for later use or delete. In a‐mail even the sender can request for delivery receipt and read receipt from the recipient.

Features of e-mail:
1. One-to-one or one-to-many communications
2. Instant communications
3. Physical presence of recipient is not required
4. Most inexpensive mail services, 24 hours a day and seven days a week.
5. Encourages informal communications

Components of an e-mail Address
As in the case of normal mail system, e-mail is also based upon the concept of a recipient address. The email address provides all of the information required to get a message to the recipient from anywhere in the world. Consider the e-mail ID aimgovtjob@gmail.com. Here, “aimgovtjob” is the local part, which is the name of a mailbox on the destination computer, where finally the mail will be delivered. Gmail is the mail server where the mailbox “aimgovtjob” exist; .com is the type of organization on net, which is hosting the mail server.

There are six main categories:
Com - Commercial institutions or organization
Edu - Educational institutions
Gov - Government site
Mil - Military site
Net - Gateways and administrative hosts
Org - Private organizations
apart from these .in, .asia and many more were there.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

File Transfer Protocol, is an Internet utility software used to upload and download files. It gives access to directories or folders on remote computers and allows software, data and text files to be transferred between different kinds of computers. FTP works on the basis of same principle as that of Client/Server. FTP “Client” is a program running on your computer that enables you to talk to, and get stuff from, remote computers.

The FTP client takes FTP commands and sends them as requests for information from the remote computer or known as FTP servers. To access remote FTP server it is required but not necessary to have an account in the FTP server. Using anonymous login anyone can login in to a FTP server and can access public file archives, anywhere in the world, without having an account. One can easily Login to the FTP site with the username anonymous and e-mail address as password.

The basic objectives of FTP are:
1. To give flexibility and promote sharing of computer programs, files and data.
2. Transfer data reliably and more efficiently over network.
3. To encourage implicit or indirect use of remote computers using Internet.
4. Shield a user from variations in file storage systems among hosts.

WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)

WWW is known as World Wide Web. The WWW is hypertext based information retrieval tool. One can easily surf the Web by jumping from one document to another using the links in those documents. These documents can be in many formats, such as text, graphics, animation, sound and latest is video. They may also be a combination of all these. All the information on Internet are presented to the user as a document or more popularly known as Web Page. All these Web Pages are link to each other or even to section within a Web Page. And these links are known as Hyper Links.

The tool used to view these Web Pages on Internet is known as Internet browser or simply browser. It is a software program specifically developed to extract information on user request from the Internet and present them as a Web Page to the viewer. There are several browsers available in the market. However the most popular are Internet Explorer from Microsoft and Netscape from Netscape Inc. The process of using browser to view information on Internet is known as Browsing or Surfing.



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